(text)

There is one major feature that is still missing from our language: we
have no way to perform recursion (therefore no kind of loops). So far,
we could only use recursion when we had *names*. In FLANG, the only way
we can have names is through `with`

which not good enough for recursion.

To discuss the issue of recursion, we switch to a “broken” version of
(untyped) Racket — one where a `define`

has a different scoping rules:
the scope of the defined name does *not* cover the defined expression.
Specifically, in this language, this doesn’t work:

#lang pl broken

(define (fact n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

(fact 5)

(define (fact n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

(fact 5)

In our language, this translation would also not work (assuming we have
`if`

etc):

{with {fact {fun {n}

{if {= n 0} 1 {* n {call fact {- n 1}}}}}}

{call fact 5}}

{if {= n 0} 1 {* n {call fact {- n 1}}}}}}

{call fact 5}}

And similarly, in plain Racket this won’t work if `let`

is the only tool
you use to create bindings:

(let ([fact (lambda (n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))])

(fact 5))

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))])

(fact 5))

In the broken-scope language, the `define`

form is more similar to a
mathematical definition. For example, when we write:

(define (F x) x)

(define (G y) (F y))

(G F)

(define (G y) (F y))

(G F)

it is actually shorthand for

(define F (lambda (x) x))

(define G (lambda (y) (F y)))

(G F)

(define G (lambda (y) (F y)))

(G F)

we can then replace defined names with their definitions:

(define F (lambda (x) x))

(define G (lambda (y) (F y)))

((lambda (y) (F y)) (lambda (x) x))

(define G (lambda (y) (F y)))

((lambda (y) (F y)) (lambda (x) x))

and this can go on, until we get to the actual code that we wrote:

((lambda (y) ((lambda (x) x) y)) (lambda (x) x))

This means that the above `fact`

definition is similar to writing:

fact := (lambda (n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

(fact 5)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

(fact 5)

which is not a well-formed definition — it is *meaningless* (this is a
formal use of the word “meaningless”). What we’d really want, is to
take the *equation* (using `=`

instead of `:=`

)

fact = (lambda (n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

and find a solution which will be a value for `fact`

that makes this
true.

If you look at the Racket evaluation rules handout on the web page, you
will see that this problem is related to the way that we introduced the
Racket `define`

: there is a hand-wavy explanation that talks about
*knowing* things.

The big question is: can we define recursive functions without Racket’s
magical `define`

form?

Note: This question is a little different than the question of implementing recursion in our language — in the Racket case we have no control over the implementation of the language. As it will eventually turn out, implementing recursion in our own language will be quite easy when we use mutation in a specific way. So the question that we’re now facing can be phrased as either “can we get recursion in Racket without Racket’s magical definition forms?” or “can we get recursion in our interpreter without mutation?”.

PLAI §22.4 (we go much deeper)

Note: This explanation is similar to the one you can find in “The Why of Y”, by Richard Gabriel.

To implement recursion without the `define`

magic, we first make an
observation: this problem does *not* come up in a dynamically-scoped
language. Consider the `let`

-version of the problem:

#lang pl dynamic

(let ([fact (lambda (n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))])

(fact 5))

(let ([fact (lambda (n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))])

(fact 5))

This works fine — because by the time we get to evaluate the body of
the function, `fact`

is already bound to itself in the current dynamic
scope. (This is another reason why dynamic scope is perceived as a
convenient approach in new languages.)

Regardless, the problem that we have with lexical scope is still there,
but the way things work in a dynamic scope suggest a solution that we
can use now. Just like in the dynamic scope case, when `fact`

is
called, it does have a value — the only problem is that this value is
inaccessible in the lexical scope of its body.

Instead of trying to get the value in via lexical scope, we can imitate
what happens in the dynamically scoped language by passing the `fact`

value to itself so it can call itself (going back to the original code
in the broken-scope language):

(define (fact self n) ;***

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (self (- n 1)))))

(fact fact 5) ;***

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (self (- n 1)))))

(fact fact 5) ;***

except that now the recursive call should still send itself along:

(define (fact self n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (self self (- n 1))))) ;***

(fact fact 5)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (self self (- n 1))))) ;***

(fact fact 5)

The problem is that this required rewriting calls to `fact`

— both
outside and recursive calls inside. To make this an acceptable
solution, calls from both places should not change. Eventually, we
should be able to get a working `fact`

definition that uses just

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

The first step in resolving this problem is to curry the `fact`

definition.

(define (fact self) ;***

(lambda (n) ;***

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((self self) (- n 1)))))) ;***

((fact fact) 5) ;***

(lambda (n) ;***

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((self self) (- n 1)))))) ;***

((fact fact) 5) ;***

Now `fact`

is no longer our factorial function — it’s a function that
constructs it. So call it `make-fact`

, and bind `fact`

to the actual
factorial function.

(define (make-fact self) ;***

(lambda (n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((self self) (- n 1))))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact)) ;***

(fact 5) ;***

(lambda (n)

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((self self) (- n 1))))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact)) ;***

(fact 5) ;***

We can try to do the same thing in the body of the factorial function:
instead of calling `(self self)`

, just bind `fact`

to it:

(define (make-fact self)

(lambda (n)

(let ([fact (self self)]) ;***

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (fact (- n 1))))))) ;***

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

(lambda (n)

(let ([fact (self self)]) ;***

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (fact (- n 1))))))) ;***

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

This works fine, but if we consider our original goal, we need to get
that local `fact`

binding outside of the `(lambda (n) ...)`

— so we’re
left with a definition that uses the factorial expression as is. So,
swap the two lines:

(define (make-fact self)

(let ([fact (self self)]) ;***

(lambda (n) ;***

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

(let ([fact (self self)]) ;***

(lambda (n) ;***

(if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

But the problem is that this gets us into an infinite loop because we’re
trying to evaluate `(self self)`

too early. In fact, if we ignore the
body of the `let`

and other details, we basically do this:

(define (make-fact self) (self self)) (make-fact make-fact)

--reduce-sugar-->

(define make-fact (lambda (self) (self self))) (make-fact make-fact)

--replace-definition-->

((lambda (self) (self self)) (lambda (self) (self self)))

--rename-identifiers-->

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (x x)))

--reduce-sugar-->

(define make-fact (lambda (self) (self self))) (make-fact make-fact)

--replace-definition-->

((lambda (self) (self self)) (lambda (self) (self self)))

--rename-identifiers-->

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (x x)))

And this expression has an interesting property: it reduces to itself, so evaluating it gets stuck in an infinite loop.

So how do we solve this? Well, we know that `(self self)`

*should* be
the same value that is the factorial function itself — so it must be a
one-argument function. If it’s such a function, we can use a value that
is equivalent, except that it will not get evaluated until it is needed,
when the function is called. The trick here is the observation that
`(lambda (n) (add1 n))`

is really the same function as `add1`

, except
that the `add1`

part doesn’t get evaluated until the function is called.
Applying this trick to our code produces a version that does not get
stuck in the same infinite loop:

(define (make-fact self)

(let ([fact (lambda (n) ((self self) n))]) ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

(let ([fact (lambda (n) ((self self) n))]) ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

Continuing from here — we know that

(let ([x v]) e) is the same as ((lambda (x) e) v)

(remember how we derived `fun`

from a `with`

), so we can turn that `let`

into the equivalent function application form:

(define (make-fact self)

((lambda (fact) ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))

(lambda (n) ((self self) n)))) ;***

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

((lambda (fact) ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))

(lambda (n) ((self self) n)))) ;***

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

And note now that the (lambda (fact) …) expression is everything that
we need for a recursive definition of `fact`

— it has the proper
factorial body with a plain recursive call. It’s almost like the usual
value that we’d want to define `fact`

as, except that we still have to
abstract on the recursive value itself. So lets move this code into a
separate definition for `fact-core`

:

(define fact-core ;***

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-fact self)

(fact-core ;***

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-fact self)

(fact-core ;***

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))

(define fact (make-fact make-fact))

(fact 5)

We can now proceed by moving the `(make-fact make-fact)`

self
application into its own function which is what creates the real
factorial:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-fact self)

(fact-core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))

(define (make-real-fact) (make-fact make-fact)) ;***

(define fact (make-real-fact)) ;***

(fact 5)

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-fact self)

(fact-core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))

(define (make-real-fact) (make-fact make-fact)) ;***

(define fact (make-real-fact)) ;***

(fact 5)

Rewrite the `make-fact`

definition using an explicit `lambda`

:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define make-fact ;***

(lambda (self) ;***

(fact-core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n)))))

(define (make-real-fact) (make-fact make-fact))

(define fact (make-real-fact))

(fact 5)

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define make-fact ;***

(lambda (self) ;***

(fact-core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n)))))

(define (make-real-fact) (make-fact make-fact))

(define fact (make-real-fact))

(fact 5)

and fold the functionality of `make-fact`

and `make-real-fact`

into a
single `make-fact`

function by just using the value of `make-fact`

explicitly instead of through a definition:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-real-fact)

(let ([make (lambda (self) ;***

(fact-core ;***

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))]) ;***

(make make)))

(define fact (make-real-fact))

(fact 5)

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-real-fact)

(let ([make (lambda (self) ;***

(fact-core ;***

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))]) ;***

(make make)))

(define fact (make-real-fact))

(fact 5)

We can now observe that `make-real-fact`

has nothing that is specific to
factorial — we can make it take a “core function” as an argument:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-real-fact core) ;***

(let ([make (lambda (self)

(core ;***

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))])

(make make)))

(define fact (make-real-fact fact-core)) ;***

(fact 5)

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-real-fact core) ;***

(let ([make (lambda (self)

(core ;***

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))])

(make make)))

(define fact (make-real-fact fact-core)) ;***

(fact 5)

and call it `make-recursive`

:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-recursive core) ;***

(let ([make (lambda (self)

(core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))])

(make make)))

(define fact (make-recursive fact-core)) ;***

(fact 5)

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-recursive core) ;***

(let ([make (lambda (self)

(core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))])

(make make)))

(define fact (make-recursive fact-core)) ;***

(fact 5)

We’re almost done now — there’s no real need for a separate
`fact-core`

definition, just use the value for the definition of `fact`

:

(define (make-recursive core)

(let ([make (lambda (self)

(core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))])

(make make)))

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact) ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))) ;***

(fact 5)

(let ([make (lambda (self)

(core

(lambda (n) ((self self) n))))])

(make make)))

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact) ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))) ;***

(fact 5)

turn the `let`

into a function form:

(define (make-recursive core)

((lambda (make) (make make)) ;***

(lambda (self) ;***

(core (lambda (n) ((self self) n)))))) ;***

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

((lambda (make) (make make)) ;***

(lambda (self) ;***

(core (lambda (n) ((self self) n)))))) ;***

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

do some renamings to make things simpler — `make`

and `self`

turn to
`x`

, and `core`

to `f`

:

(define (make-recursive f) ;***

((lambda (x) (x x)) ;***

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n)))))) ;***

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

((lambda (x) (x x)) ;***

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n)))))) ;***

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

or we can manually expand that first (lambda (x) (x x)) application to
make the symmetry more obvious (not really surprising because it started
with a `let`

whose purpose was to do a self-application):

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n)))) ;***

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n)))))) ;***

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n)))) ;***

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n)))))) ;***

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

And we finally got what we were looking for: a general way to define
*any* recursive function without any magical `define`

tricks. This also
work for other recursive functions:

#lang pl broken

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

(define fib

(make-recursive

(lambda (fib)

(lambda (n) (if (<= n 1) n (+ (fib (- n 1)) (fib (- n 2))))))))

(fib 8)

(define length

(make-recursive

(lambda (length)

(lambda (l) (if (null? l) 0 (+ (length (rest l)) 1))))))

(length '(x y z))

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

(define fib

(make-recursive

(lambda (fib)

(lambda (n) (if (<= n 1) n (+ (fib (- n 1)) (fib (- n 2))))))))

(fib 8)

(define length

(make-recursive

(lambda (length)

(lambda (l) (if (null? l) 0 (+ (length (rest l)) 1))))))

(length '(x y z))

A convenient tool that people often use on paper is to perform a kind of
a syntactic abstraction: “assume that whenever I write (twice foo) I
really meant to write (foo foo)”. This can often be done as plain
abstractions (that is, using functions), but in some cases — for
example, if we want to abstract over definitions — we just want such a
rewrite rule. (More on this towards the end of the course.) The
broken-scope language does provide such a tool — `rewrite`

extends the
language with a rewrite rule. Using this, and our `make-recursive`

, we
can make up a recursive definition form:

(rewrite (define/rec (f x) E)

=> (define f (make-recursive (lambda (f) (lambda (x) E)))))

=> (define f (make-recursive (lambda (f) (lambda (x) E)))))

In other words, we’ve created our own “magical definition” form. The above code can now be written in almost the same way it is written in plain Racket:

#lang pl broken

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(rewrite (define/rec (f x) E)

=> (define f (make-recursive (lambda (f) (lambda (x) E)))))

;; examples

(define/rec (fact n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

(fact 5)

(define/rec (fib n) (if (<= n 1) n (+ (fib (- n 1)) (fib (- n 2)))))

(fib 8)

(define/rec (length l) (if (null? l) 0 (+ (length (rest l)) 1)))

(length '(x y z))

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(rewrite (define/rec (f x) E)

=> (define f (make-recursive (lambda (f) (lambda (x) E)))))

;; examples

(define/rec (fact n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))

(fact 5)

(define/rec (fib n) (if (<= n 1) n (+ (fib (- n 1)) (fib (- n 2)))))

(fib 8)

(define/rec (length l) (if (null? l) 0 (+ (length (rest l)) 1)))

(length '(x y z))

Finally, note that make-recursive is limited to 1-argument functions only because of the protection from eager evaluation. In any case, it can be used in any way you want, for example,

(make-recursive (lambda (f) (lambda (x) f)))

is a function that *returns* itself rather than calling itself. Using
the rewrite rule, this would be:

(define/rec (f x) f)

which is the same as:

(define (f x) f)

in plain Racket.

`make-recursive`

As in Racket, being able to express recursive functions is a fundamental property of the language. It means that we can have loops in our language, and that’s the essence of making a language powerful enough to be TM-equivalent — able to express undecidable problems, where we don’t know whether there is an answer or not.

The core of what makes this possible is the expression that we have seen in our derivation:

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (x x)))

which reduces to itself, and therefore has no value: trying to evaluate it gets stuck in an infinite loop. (This expression is often called “Omega”.)

This is the key for creating a loop — we use it to make recursion
possible. Looking at our final `make-recursive`

definition and ignoring
for a moment the “protection” that we need against being stuck
prematurely in an infinite loop:

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (f (x x)))))

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (f (x x)))))

we can see that this is almost the same as the Omega expression — the
only difference is that application of `f`

. Indeed, this expression
(the result of (make-recursive F) for some `F`

) reduces in a similar way
to Omega:

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (F (x x))))

((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x))))

(F ((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x)))))

(F (F ((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x))))))

(F (F (F ((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x)))))))

...

((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x))))

(F ((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x)))))

(F (F ((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x))))))

(F (F (F ((lambda (x) (F (x x))) (lambda (x) (F (x x)))))))

...

which means that the actual value of this expression is:

(F (F (F ...forever...)))

This definition would be sufficient if we had a lazy language, but to
get things working in a strict one we need to bring back the protection.
This makes things a little different — if we use `(protect f)`

to be a
shorthand for the protection trick,

(rewrite (protect f) => (lambda (x) (f x)))

then we have:

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (f (protect (x x))))))

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (f (protect (x x))))))

which makes the (make-recursive F) evaluation reduce to

(F (protect (F (protect (F (protect (...forever...)))))))

and this is still the same result (as long as `F`

is a single-argument
function).

(Note that `protect`

cannot be implemented as a plain function!)

Note: This explanation is similar to the one you can find in “The Little Schemer” called “(Y Y) Works!”, by Dan Friedman and Matthias Felleisen.

The explanation that we have now for how to derive the `make-recursive`

definition is fine — after all, we did manage to get it working. But
this explanation was done from a kind of an operational point of view:
we knew a certain trick that can make things work and we pushed things
around until we got it working like we wanted. Instead of doing this,
we can re-approach the problem from a more declarative point of view.

So, start again from the same broken code that we had (using the broken-scope language):

(define fact

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))

This is as broken as it was when we started: the occurrence of `fact`

in
the body of the function is free, which means that this code is
meaningless. To avoid the compilation error that we get when we run
this code, we can substitute *anything* for that `fact`

— it’s even
better to use a replacement that will lead to a runtime error:

(define fact

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (777 (- n 1)))))) ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (777 (- n 1)))))) ;***

This function will not work in a similar way to the original one — but
there is one case where it *does* work: when the input value is `0`

(since then we do not reach the bogus application). We note this by
calling this function `fact0`

:

(define fact0 ;***

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (777 (- n 1))))))

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (777 (- n 1))))))

Now that we have this function defined, we can use it to write `fact1`

which is the factorial function for arguments of `0`

or `1`

:

(define fact0

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (777 (- n 1))))))

(define fact1

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact0 (- n 1))))))

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (777 (- n 1))))))

(define fact1

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact0 (- n 1))))))

And remember that this is actually just shorthand for:

(define fact1

(lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (777 (- n 1)))))

(- n 1))))))

(lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (777 (- n 1)))))

(- n 1))))))

We can continue in this way and write `fact2`

that will work for n<=2:

(define fact2

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact1 (- n 1))))))

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact1 (- n 1))))))

or, in full form:

(define fact2

(lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (777 (- n 1)))))

(- n 1)))))

(- n 1))))))

(lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n ((lambda (n)

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (777 (- n 1)))))

(- n 1)))))

(- n 1))))))

If we continue this way, we *will* get the true factorial function, but
the problem is that to handle *any* possible integer argument, it will
have to be an infinite definition! Here is what it is supposed to look
like:

(define fact0 (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (777 (- n 1))))))

(define fact1 (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact0 (- n 1))))))

(define fact2 (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact1 (- n 1))))))

(define fact3 (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact2 (- n 1))))))

...

(define fact1 (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact0 (- n 1))))))

(define fact2 (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact1 (- n 1))))))

(define fact3 (lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact2 (- n 1))))))

...

The true factorial function is `fact-infinity`

, with an infinite size.
So, we’re back at the original problem…

To help make things more concise, we can observe the repeated pattern in
the above, and extract a function that abstracts this pattern. This
function is the same as the `fact-core`

that we have seen previously:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact0 (fact-core 777))

(define fact1 (fact-core fact0))

(define fact2 (fact-core fact1))

(define fact3 (fact-core fact2))

...

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact0 (fact-core 777))

(define fact1 (fact-core fact0))

(define fact2 (fact-core fact1))

(define fact3 (fact-core fact2))

...

which is actually:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact0 (fact-core 777))

(define fact1 (fact-core (fact-core 777)))

(define fact2 (fact-core (fact-core (fact-core 777))))

...

(define fact

(fact-core (fact-core (fact-core (... (fact-core 777) ...)))))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact0 (fact-core 777))

(define fact1 (fact-core (fact-core 777)))

(define fact2 (fact-core (fact-core (fact-core 777))))

...

(define fact

(fact-core (fact-core (fact-core (... (fact-core 777) ...)))))

Do this a little differently — rewrite `fact0`

as:

(define fact0

((lambda (mk) (mk 777))

fact-core))

((lambda (mk) (mk 777))

fact-core))

Similarly, `fact1`

is written as:

(define fact1

((lambda (mk) (mk (mk 777)))

fact-core))

((lambda (mk) (mk (mk 777)))

fact-core))

and so on, until the real factorial, which is still infinite at this stage:

(define fact

((lambda (mk) (mk (mk (... (mk 777) ...))))

fact-core))

((lambda (mk) (mk (mk (... (mk 777) ...))))

fact-core))

Now, look at that `(lambda (mk) ...)`

— it is an infinite expression,
but for every actual application of the resulting factorial function we
only need a finite number of `mk`

applications. We can guess how many,
and as soon as we hit an application of `777`

we know that our guess is
too small. So instead of `777`

, we can try to use the maker function to
create and use the next.

To make things more explicit, here is the expression that is our
`fact0`

, without the definition form:

((lambda (mk) (mk 777))

fact-core)

fact-core)

This function has a very low guess — it works for 0, but with 1 it
will run into the `777`

application. At this point, we want to somehow
invoke `mk`

again to get the next level — and since `777`

*does* get
applied, we can just replace it with `mk`

:

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

fact-core)

fact-core)

The resulting function works just the same for an input of `0`

because
it does not attempt a recursive call — but if we give it `1`

, then
instead of running into the error of applying `777`

:

(* n (777 (- n 1)))

we get to apply `fact-core`

there:

(* n (fact-core (- n 1)))

and this is still wrong, because `fact-core`

expects a function as an
input. To see what happens more clearly, write `fact-core`

explicitly:

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

The problem is in what we’re going to pass into `fact-core`

— its
`fact`

argument will not be the factorial function, but the `mk`

function constructor. Renaming the `fact`

argument as `mk`

will make
this more obvious (but not change the meaning):

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (mk (- n 1)))))))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (mk (- n 1)))))))

It should now be obvious that this application of `mk`

will not work,
instead, we need to apply it on some function and *then* apply the
result on `(- n 1)`

. To get what we had before, we can use `777`

as a
bogus function:

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((mk 777) (- n 1)))))))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((mk 777) (- n 1)))))))

This will allow one recursive call — so the definition works for both
inputs of `0`

and `1`

— but not more. But that `777`

is used as a
maker function now, so instead, we can just use `mk`

itself again:

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((mk mk) (- n 1)))))))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((mk mk) (- n 1)))))))

And this is a *working* version of the real factorial function, so make
it into a (non-magical) definition:

(define fact

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((mk mk) (- n 1))))))))

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (mk)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((mk mk) (- n 1))))))))

But we’re not done — we “broke” into the factorial code to insert that
`(mk mk)`

application — that’s why we dragged in the actual value of
`fact-core`

. We now need to fix this. The expression on that last line

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n ((mk mk) (- n 1)))))

is close enough — it is `(fact-core (mk mk))`

. So we can now try to
rewrite our `fact`

as:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (mk) (fact-core (mk mk)))))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact

((lambda (mk) (mk mk))

(lambda (mk) (fact-core (mk mk)))))

… and would fail in a familiar way! If it’s not familiar enough, just
rename all those `mk`

s as `x`

s:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact

((lambda (x) (x x))

(lambda (x) (fact-core (x x)))))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact

((lambda (x) (x x))

(lambda (x) (fact-core (x x)))))

We’ve run into the eagerness of our language again, as we did before.
The solution is the same — the `(x x)`

is the factorial function, so
protect it as we did before, and we have a working version:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact

((lambda (x) (x x))

(lambda (x) (fact-core (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define fact

((lambda (x) (x x))

(lambda (x) (fact-core (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

The rest should not be surprising now… Abstract the recursive making
bit in a new `make-recursive`

function:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (x x))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(define fact (make-recursive fact-core))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (x x))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(define fact (make-recursive fact-core))

and now we can do the first reduction inside `make-recursive`

and write
the `fact-core`

expression explicitly:

#lang pl broken

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))

(lambda (x) (f (lambda (n) ((x x) n))))))

(define fact

(make-recursive

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

and this is the same code we had before.

Our `make-recursive`

function is usually called the *fixpoint operator*
or the *Y combinator*.

It looks really simple when using the lazy version (remember: our version is the eager one):

(define Y

(lambda (f)

((lambda (x) (f (x x)))

(lambda (x) (f (x x))))))

(lambda (f)

((lambda (x) (f (x x)))

(lambda (x) (f (x x))))))

Note that if we

doallow a recursive definition for Y itself, then the definition can follow the definition that we’ve seen:(define (Y f) (f (Y f)))

And this all comes from the loop generated by:

((lambda (x) (x x)) (lambda (x) (x x)))

This expression, which is also called *Omega* (the `(lambda (x) (x x))`

part by itself is usually called *omega* and then `(omega omega)`

is
*Omega*), is also the idea behind many deep mathematical facts. As an
example for what it does, follow the next rule:

I will say the next sentence twice:

"I will say the next sentence twice".

"I will say the next sentence twice".

(Note the usage of colon for the first and quotes for the second — what is the equivalent of that in the lambda expression?)

By itself, this just gets you stuck in an infinite loop, as Omega does,
and the Y combinator adds `F`

to that to get an infinite chain of
applications — which is similar to:

I will say the next sentence twice:

"I will hop on one foot and then say the next sentence twice".

"I will hop on one foot and then say the next sentence twice".

`fact-core`

is a function that given any limited factorial, will
generate a factorial that is good for one more integer input. Start
with `777`

, which is a factorial that is good for nothing (because it’s
not a function), and you can get `fact0`

as

fact0 == (fact-core 777)

and that’s a good factorial function only for an input of `0`

. Use that
with `fact-core`

again, and you get

fact1 == (fact-core fact0) == (fact-core (fact-core 777))

which is the factorial function when you only look at input values of
`0`

or `1`

. In a similar way

fact2 == (fact-core fact1)

is good for `0`

…`2`

— and we can continue as much as we want, except
that we need to have an infinite number of applications — in the
general case, we have:

fact-n == (fact-core (fact-core (fact-core ... 777)))

which is good for `0`

…`n`

. The *real* factorial would be the result
of running `fact-core`

on itself infinitely, it *is* `fact-infinity`

.
In other words (here `fact`

is the *real* factorial):

fact = fact-infinity == (fact-core (fact-core ...infinitely...))

but note that since this is really infinity, then

fact = (fact-core (fact-core ...infinitely...))

= (fact-core fact)

= (fact-core fact)

so we get an equation:

fact = (fact-core fact)

and a solution for this is going to be the real factorial. The solution
is the *fixed-point* of the `fact-core`

function, in the same sense that
`0`

is the fixed point of the `sin`

function because

0 = (sin 0)

And the Y combinator does just that — it has this property:

(make-recursive f) = (f (make-recursive f))

or, using the more common name:

(Y f) = (f (Y f))

This property encapsulates the real magical power of Y. You can see how
it works: since `(Y f) = (f (Y f))`

, we can add an `f`

application to
both sides, giving us `(f (Y f)) = (f (f (Y f)))`

, so we get:

(Y f) = (f (Y f)) = (f (f (Y f))) = (f (f (f (Y f)))) = ...

= (f (f (f ...)))

= (f (f (f ...)))

and we can conclude that

(Y fact-core) = (fact-core (fact-core ...infinitely...))

= fact

= fact

Here’s another explanation of how the Y combinator works. Remember that
our `fact-core`

function was actually a function that generates a
factorial function based on some input, which is supposed to be the
factorial function:

(define fact-core

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

(lambda (fact)

(lambda (n) (if (zero? n) 1 (* n (fact (- n 1)))))))

As we’ve seen, you can apply this function on a version of factorial
that is good for inputs up to some n, and the result will be a factorial
that is good for those values up to n+1. The question is *what is the
fixpoint of fact-core*? And the answer is that if it maps factₙ
factorial to factₙ₊₁, then the input will be equal to the output on the

`fact`

, which is the (define the-real-factorial (Y fact-core))

Typing the Y combinator is a tricky issue. For example, in standard ML you must write a new type definition to do this:

datatype 'a t = T of 'a t -> 'a

val y = fn f => (fn (T x) => (f (fn a => x (T x) a)))

(T (fn (T x) => (f (fn a => x (T x) a))))

val y = fn f => (fn (T x) => (f (fn a => x (T x) a)))

(T (fn (T x) => (f (fn a => x (T x) a))))

Can you find a pattern in the places where

`T`

is used? — Roughly speaking, that type definition is;; `t' is the type name, `T' is the constructor (aka the variant)

(define-type (RecType a) ; we don't really have polymorphic types

[T ((RecType a) -> a)])First note that the two

`fn a => ...`

parts are the same as our protection, so ignoring that we get:val y = fn f => (fn (T x) => (f (x (T x))))

(T (fn (T x) => (f (x (T x)))))if you now replace

`T`

with`Quote`

, things make more sense:val y = fn f => (fn (Quote x) => (f (x (Quote x))))

(Quote (fn (Quote x) => (f (x (Quote x)))))and with our syntax, this would be:

(define (Y f)

((lambda (qx)

(cases qx

[(Quote x) (f (x (Quote x)))]))

(Quote

(lambda (qx)

(cases qx

[(Quote x) (f (x (Quote x)))])))))it’s not really quotation — but the analogy should help: it uses

`Quote`

to distinguish functions as values that are applied (the`x`

s) from functions that are passed as arguments.

In OCaml, this looks a little different:

# type 'a t = T of ('a t -> 'a) ;;

type 'a t = T of ('a t -> 'a)

# let y f = (fun (T x) -> x (T x))

(T (fun (T x) -> fun z -> f (x (T x)) z)) ;;

val y : (('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b = <fun>

# let fact = y (fun fact n -> if n<1 then 1 else n* fact(n-1)) ;;

val fact : int -> int = <fun>

# fact 5 ;;

- : int = 120

type 'a t = T of ('a t -> 'a)

# let y f = (fun (T x) -> x (T x))

(T (fun (T x) -> fun z -> f (x (T x)) z)) ;;

val y : (('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b = <fun>

# let fact = y (fun fact n -> if n<1 then 1 else n* fact(n-1)) ;;

val fact : int -> int = <fun>

# fact 5 ;;

- : int = 120

but OCaml has also a `-rectypes`

command line argument, which will make
it infer the type by itself:

# let y f = (fun x -> x x) (fun x -> fun z -> f (x x) z) ;;

val y : (('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b = <fun>

# let fact = y (fun fact n -> if n<1 then 1 else n* fact(n-1)) ;;

val fact : int -> int = <fun>

# fact 5 ;;

- : int = 120

val y : (('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b = <fun>

# let fact = y (fun fact n -> if n<1 then 1 else n* fact(n-1)) ;;

val fact : int -> int = <fun>

# fact 5 ;;

- : int = 120

It is also possible to write this expression in Typed Racket, but we
will need to write a proper type definition. First of all, the type of
Y should be straightforward: it is a fixpoint operation, so it takes a
`T -> T`

function and produces its fixpoint. The fixpoint itself is
some `T`

(such that applying the function on it results in itself). So
this gives us:

(: make-recursive : (T -> T) -> T)

However, in our case `make-recursive`

computes a *functional* fixpoint,
for unary `S -> T`

functions, so we should narrow down the type

(: make-recursive : ((S -> T) -> (S -> T)) -> (S -> T))

Now, in the body of `make-recursive`

we need to add a type for the `x`

argument which is behaving in a weird way: it is used both as a function
and as its own argument. (Remember — I will say the next sentence
twice: “I will say the next sentence twice”.) We need a recursive type
definition for that:

(define-type (Tau S T) = (Rec this (this -> (S -> T))))

This type is tailored for our use of `x`

: given a type `T`

, `x`

is a
function that will consume *itself* (hence the `Rec`

) and spit out the
value that the `f`

argument consumes — an `S -> T`

function.

The resulting full version of the code:

(: make-recursive : (All (S T) ((S -> T) -> (S -> T)) -> (S -> T)))

(define-type (Tau S T) = (Rec this (this -> (S -> T))))

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda ([x : (Tau S T)]) (f (lambda (z) ((x x) z))))

(lambda ([x : (Tau S T)]) (f (lambda (z) ((x x) z))))))

(: fact : Number -> Number)

(define fact (make-recursive

(lambda ([fact : (Number -> Number)])

(lambda ([n : Number])

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)

(define-type (Tau S T) = (Rec this (this -> (S -> T))))

(define (make-recursive f)

((lambda ([x : (Tau S T)]) (f (lambda (z) ((x x) z))))

(lambda ([x : (Tau S T)]) (f (lambda (z) ((x x) z))))))

(: fact : Number -> Number)

(define fact (make-recursive

(lambda ([fact : (Number -> Number)])

(lambda ([n : Number])

(if (zero? n)

1

(* n (fact (- n 1))))))))

(fact 5)